本文介绍林丽莎的第四部歌剧《代码 树》，该歌剧最近于 2016 年 4 月在德国 由科隆歌剧院的音乐工厂乐团和歌唱家们 首演。此歌剧以奇幻的“生命末日”为背 景，是根据美国作家纳森•萨弗兰•福尔 的精美“剪切”书创作的（该书本身是用 战前波兰作家布鲁诺•舒尔茨的短篇小说 集剪裁而成）。这种“剪切”技巧（从一 页文字中剪掉某些词，从而留下一篇具有 新含义组合的文字）移植到了歌剧上，其 中涉及到角色身份、时间和记忆的转换。 歌剧中的角色从人转换成了动物，转换成 了鸟类、昆虫和植物，而植物和物体都活 跃起来开始跳舞、唱歌和说话。时光从死 亡开始倒流，从而能够更清楚地看到各种 生命可能性的光彩。
This lecture focuses on Liza Lim's fourth opera 'Tree of Codes' which was recently premiered by Ensemble Musikfabrik and singers of Cologne Opera in Germany in April 2016. Based on the exquisite 'cut- out' book of American author Jonathan Safran Foer, which itself is based on short stories by the pre-war Polish author Bruno Schultz, the opera is set in a magical 'last day of life'. The technique of the ‘cut-out’ whereby words are deleted from a page leaving behind a text with new combinations of meanings is transposed to the opera, which is about transformation of identity, time and memory. The characters in the opera change from human to animal; to bird and insect and plant whilst plant life and objects, come alive and dance and sing and speak. Time is wound back from death in order to see more clearly the radiance of the possibilities of life.
此歌剧是为三名歌手和十六名乐手 谱写的。在科隆的演出中，全体演奏员 与四名演员同台参与表演。乐手们演奏多 种怪异的乐器，其中包括几支双管铜管乐 器（如：双管小号、双管圆号、双管长号 和双管次中音号），一把斯特罗提琴（用 两个金属号管代替琴身来放大声音的中提 琴——这种乐器是在 1920 年代为了在录 音棚中使用而研制的），一支比普通长笛 低两个八度的超倍低音长笛和一支主要以 独奏方式演奏的巴松管。为了创造一种音 乐语言来反映歌剧中的转换与混合角色身 份的主题，作曲家探索了多种新颖的记谱 技巧和方法。
The opera is scored for 3 singers and 16 musicians. In the Cologne production, all of the performers are part of the stage action and are joined by four actors. The musicians play many unusual instruments: there are double bell brass instruments (eg: trumpet, horn, trombone and euphonium all have two bells); there is a strohviol (a viola with two metal horns instead of a body, that amplify the sound
– this instrument was developed in the 1920s for use in recording studios); a subcontrabssflute sounding 2 octaves below the concert flute, and a bassoon used in a highly soloistic way. Many new techniques and approaches to notation are explored in order to create a musical language that reflects the opera’s themes of transformation and hybrid identity.